Numerical modelling of a void behind shaft lining using FDM with a concrete spalling algorithm

Volume 13
Issue 2

The aim of the research presented in this paper was to determine the impact of voids behind the lining on shaft stability.
This paper presents an example of extending the FLAC3D with the possibility of the simulation of concrete detachment and separation under specific conditions by means of a developed FISH routine.
The appearance of voids and cavities behind the lining has been repeatedly observed in active shafts in Polish coal mines and can lead to the emergence of tensile forces in the lining. The study included 366 models of shafts using the rock mass properties of typical shale stone, coal, and sandstone found in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin.
Practical implications
The presented concrete spalling algorithm may be used, especially, for the stability evaluation of locally damaged shaft lining or when there is a suspicion of void behind the lining.
Originality/ value
An important limitation of all continuous methods is the inability (except when using some additional tools) to simulate the rotations of predefined elements (blocks) and their separation from the rest of the object. The concrete spalling algorithm presented extends the capabilities of FLAC3D with the possibility of simulating the detachment and separation of destroyed lining fragments.


Bock, S. (2014). Numerical modelling of a void behind shaft lining using FDM with a concrete spalling algorithm. Journal of Sustainable Mining, 13(2), 14–21. doi:10.7424/jsm140203
Bock, Sławomir. “Numerical Modelling of a Void behind Shaft Lining Using FDM with a Concrete Spalling Algorithm.” Journal of Sustainable Mining 13.2 (2014): 14–21.